Citrus extracts mainly are hesperetin and naringin, which both have antioxidant effects. The former can reduce the harm caused by oxidation reactions, the latter has a good scavenging effect on free radicals, which can effectively inhibit lipid peroxidation, but also enhance the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and perform antioxidant effects. Hesperetin is derived from malonyl CoA and 4-coumaroyl CoA . The latter is derived from phenylalanine. Through chalcone synthase, the resulting butanone is converted to chalcone. Chalcone then undergoes a closed-loop to produce naringenin.
In terms of anti-tumor, hesperetin can avoid cancer caused by chemical, physical and biological induced genetic mutations. Naringin can increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes, inhibit cancer cells, protect normal cells and radioactive DNA damage.
For the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, both of them also have good performance. Hesperetin has the effect of reducing blood lipids and vascular permeability, which can inhibit the formation of blood clots. It also has estrogen-like activity, which can promote the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium of blood vessels, relax and dilate blood vessels, thus achieving the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Naringin, on the other hand, promotes transit of cholesterol from blood to liver and the secretion of bile, and inhibits the conversion of HDL to VLDL or LDL. It reduces the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease., also lowers diastolic blood pressure.
In terms of anti-inflammation, hesperetin can interfere with the release of arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine inflammatory mediators, acting as an indirect inhibitor of inflammation. Naringin has anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and analgesic effects. In addition, naringin also has the function of improving soft tissue cell, as well as inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes.
Hesperetin is mainly derived from plants of the Rutaceae, such as Citrus aurantium and Chrysanthemum. Hesperidin is contained in ordinary orange juice and grapefruit juice from 200 to 590mg/L, and it is abundant in the peel. Naringin mainly comes from the Rutaceae plants, such as grapefruit, berry and its leaves.The skin of grapefruit is higher in naringin than the pulp, containing about 1% to 6%.